(P25-006-20) Garlic Scape Extract Decreases Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis by Activating AMK-Activated Protein Kinase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Objectives: Excessive fat accumulation in the body, indicated as obesity causes development of other metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Due to limitations of current strategies such as long-term engagement and high cost, new strategies to reduce the prevalence of obesity are needed. Garlic scape (Allium sativum L.) is the flower bud of the garlic plant that is removed to promote the growth of the bulb. Although most of garlic scape are trashed as a byproduct of garlic in the farm, it is still edible and includes various phytochemicals to improve human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-obesity effect of garlic scape and its mechanism using 3T3-L1 cells.
Methods: Garlic scape extract (GSE) was prepared by solvent extraction using 80% methanol (v/v). 3T3-L1 cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells that mimic preadipocytes, were incubated with GSE during the differentiation. Total RNA and proteins from the cells were extracted. The expression of genes related to lipid metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C\EBP) α and β, adipocyte protein (aP) 2, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulated element binding protein (SREBP) 1c, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1α was determined using a quantitative PCR. The expression of proteins such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), ACC, and AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was measured using a western blot. Effect of GSE on lipid accumulation were visualized and quantified using Oil Red O staining.
Results: GSE decreased the expression of genes related to adipogenesis (PPARγ, C\EBPα, and C\EBPβ) and lipogenesis (ACC, FAS, and SREBP1c) whereas HSL and CPT1α genes and proteins related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were not changed. Phosphorylation on both AMPK and ACC were increased. Adipocytes that were treated with GSE showed reduced lipid accumulation.
Conclusions: GSE inhibits fat accumulation in white adipocytes by decreasing adipogenesis and lipogenesis through possibly a AMPK pathway. Garlic scape may be a potential candidate to improve obese conditions.
Funding Sources: This work was supported by USDA.
Olugbenga T. Balogun
North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro, North Carolina
Postdoc NCAT Greensboro, North Carolina
Hye Won Kang
Associate Processor North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro, North Carolina