(P13-035-20) Asaronic Acid Inhibited Glucose-Triggered M2-Phenotype Shift Through Disrupting the Formation of Coordinated Signaling of IL-4Rα-Tyk2-STAT6 and GLUT1-Akt-mTOR-AMPK
Objectives: Macrophage polarization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Macrophages responsive to polarizing signals can result in their functional phenotype shifts. This study examined whether high glucose induced the functional transition of M2 macrophages, which was inhibited by asaronic acid, one of purple perilla constituents.
Methods: J774A.1 murine macrophages were incubated with 40 ng/ml interleukin(IL)-4 or 33 mM glucose in the absence and presence of 1-20 μΜ asaronic acid, which led to M2 or diabetic inflammatory state at 48h. TheM2 macrophage biomarkers were estimated by conducting Western blot analysis, IHC and ELISA with specific antibodies.
Results: In macrophages treated with IL-4 for 48 h, asaronic acid further accelerated cellular induction of the M2 markers of IL-10, arginase-1, CD163 and PPARγ via increased IL-4-IL-4Rα interaction and activated Tyk2-STAT6 pathway. Asaronic acid promoted angiogenic and proliferative capacity of M2-polarized macrophages, through increasing expression of VEGF, PDGF and TGF-β. In glucose-loaded macrophages there was cellular induction of IL-4, IL-4 Rα, arginase-1 and CD163, indicating that high glucose skewed naïve macrophages toward M2 phenotypes. However, asaronic acid inhibited M2 polarization in diabetic macrophages in parallel with inactivation of Tyk2-STAT6pathway and blockade of GLUT1-mediated metabolic pathway of Akt-mTOR-AMPKα. Consequently, asaronic acid deterred functional induction of COX-2, CTGF, α-SMA, SR-A and SR-B1in diabetic macrophages with M2 phenotype.
Conclusions: These results demonstrated that asaronic acid allayed glucose-activated M2-phenotype shift through disrupting coordinated signaling of IL-4Rα-Tyk2-STAT6 in parallel with GLUT1-Akt-mTOR-AMPK pathway. Thus, asaronic acid has therapeutic potential in combating diabetes-associated inflammation, fibrosis, and atherogenesis through inhibiting glucose-evoked M2 polarization.
Funding Sources: This work was supported by the Hallym University Research Fund, 2019 (HRF-201910-007) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (2019R1A2C1003218).
Hallym University Chuncheong-si, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea
Hallym University chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea